Op-Ed: Remembering the Black Panther Party


 +
black panther party photo: Black Panther Party founders CivilRights_Pantherfoundingmembers.jpg
Despite its revolutionary pronouncements, the Black Panther  Party began very much under the influence of the mainstream patriarchal culture.  In 1968, the Party newspaper stated that the role of female members was to be  “subordinate” to the males.

The following year, however, Deputy Chairman Fred  Hampton, of the Illinois chapter, publicly condemned sexism in the  party as counterrevolutionary. Adapting ‘feminism’ to the unique  experiences of African American women, the Party advocated a womanist philosophy. Drawing on the writings of Angela Davis and others,  it was posited that the “brutal equality” of oppression of Black males and  females, based on chattel slavery, necessitated a creative approach to gender  roles in the African American community. Unlike in European American society,  African American men and women had to work together for the preservation and  reconstruction of a ‘revolutionary’ culture and community.

From this point forward the Black Panther Party newspaper  portrayed women as revolutionaries, using the example of Party members, such as  Kathleen Cleaver, Angela Davis and Ericka Huggins, all political, intelligent and attractive women. The  BPP newspaper often showed women as active participants in the armed  self-defense movement, picturing them with children and guns as protectors of  the home, family and community. From 1968 to the end of its publication in 1982,  the head editors of the newspaper were all women. In 1970, approximately  40% to 70% of Party members were women, and several chapters, such as  the Des Moines, Iowa and New Haven, Connecticut, were headed by women. During  the 1970s, the Party officially supported women’s reproductive  rights, including abortion, and ‘reprimand’ men who violated the rules  of gender equality.

One of the most significant projects of  the BPP occurred on the weekend of September 5, 1970 in Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. It was there, after months of planning, a Revolutionary  Constitutional Convention convened. A multicultural gathering of 15,000  people assembled to draft a new U.S. Constitution, providing “authentic  liberty and justice for all Americans.” In the week before the convention  Philadelphia police assaulted the three Panther offices in the city. In the  confrontation three officers were wounded, along with dozens of Panthers, who  were also arrested. The latter were forced to walk naked through the streets  while being photographed by the press.

Some of the proposals formulated during  the Constitutional Convention were:

- an international Bill of Rights

- community control of schools

- free decentralized medical care

- the right to be gay

- the confiscation of billions  of dollars of organized crime wealth

- the reorganization of police  forces in the U.S. into rotating, volunteer, non-professional bodies,  coordinated by a police review board, drawn from a weekly list  of volunteers from each community

- redistribution of the  world’s wealth

The BPP had organized an armed  ‘underground’ wing of the organization from its earliest days. Anticipating that  its political activities would eventually be suppressed, they envisioned a  ‘secret’ guerrilla army able to defend the group. However, by 1968, Newton,  Minister of Defense and later Supreme Servant of the People, and the  Chief-of-Staff, David Hilliard, began to emphasize the  expansion of the survival programs, instead of the armed clandestine ‘vanguard’.  That same year, the national leadership initiated a policy to ‘expel’ those  members involved in ‘unauthorized’ armed activity.

In the early 1970s Newton introduced  his theory of intercommunalism, and changed the name of the  national paper from The Black Panther to the Black Panther Intercommunal  News Service.. Instead of the initial philosophy of ‘revolutionary’  black nationalism, Newton argued that “the world was a collection of  communities, mostly exploited by a small community of corporations based in the  U.S.” Several chapters, mostly on the East coast, and leading national  officers, including Minister of Information, Eldridge Cleaver,  were expelled for “emphasizing the gun” and moving the organization into  “military action” without the support of the people. Subsequently, Cleaver, in  self-exile abroad, formed a separate group in Algeria. The Newton-led faction  consolidated the remaining members into the one city where it all began:  Oakland, California. . .

Fueled in part by COINTELPRO, the strength of the  Party declined precipitously in the mid-1970s. Members who had joined the  organization for less-than-revolutionary reasons, unreformed ‘gangsters’,  continuing vestiges of male chauvinism, in addition to Newton’s drug abuse,  became major internal problems.

“By 1974, it was obvious that Huey was  moving in a direction that Bobby (Seale) did not fully support. Huey, flanked by  the thirty-man strong security squad, had started to shake down the criminal  elements in Oakland. Pimps, drug dealers and managers of after-hours spots were  now obliged to kickback some money or face consequences. This was not a  counterrevolutionary tactic. In fact, many revolutionary movements throughout  the world had operated in a similar fashion; taxing the ‘illegal’ capitalists  who had profited off the community, but did not pay into the ‘system’. But,  things began to get out of hand. In 1974, a warrant was put out for Huey’s  arrest in the murder of a prostitute. The pimps and hustlers had also put out a  $25,000 contract on our leader’s head, and with many of the members of the  security squad leaving the Party, he had no protection. Huey and his wife  ‘disappeared’. They eventually resurfaced in Cuba.”

My People Are Rising, Aaron Dixon

Before Newton’s departure, Seale was  expelled from the Party and Elaine Brown, a member of the  central committee, became chairwoman. Under her leadership the BPP aligned with  several political power brokers in the Bay Area and Sacramento. A major victory  occurred with the election of John George, the Party’s longtime  lawyer, as the first Black member of the Oakland/Alameda County Board of  Supervisors. In 1975, another political ally, Lionel Wilson,  became the first Black mayor of Oakland.

The Panther-created  Intercommunal Youth School, begun in 1971, gained a reputation  as one of the best community-based schools in the country. Directed by Brown,  Ericka Huggins and Donna Howell, the institution developed a  novel approach to education by not having grade levels and offering free busing;  breakfast, lunch and dinner; books and school supplies; clothes and medical  examinations.

The Black Panthers have become an inspiration, in name and  tactics, for various groups and movements since its existence:

- Gray Panthers, often  used to refer to advocates for the rights of seniors (Gray Panthers in the  United States; The Grays – Gray Panthers in Germany)

- Polynesian Panthers,  an advocacy group for Maori people in New Zealand

- Black Panthers, protest movement for the rights and social justice of Mizrahi Jews in Israel

- White Panthers, used  refer to both the White Panther Party, a far-left, anti-racist, White American  political party of the 1970s, as well as the White Panthers UK, an unaffiliated group started by Mick Farren

- The Pink Panthers, used to refer to two LGBT rights organizations

- Pantrarna, a  grassroots organization in Gothenburg, Sweden, mainly consisting of migrant  youth, has been named after the Black Panthers . . .

Read more:  http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/361333#ixzz2jZbPmjv9

About these ads

3 thoughts on “Op-Ed: Remembering the Black Panther Party

  1. Pingback: Grits of Gratuity: The Free Breakfast Program of the Black Panther Party | occupycuisine

  2. Pingback: From Black & Panther to Black & Poly: An Interview with Ex-Black Panther Kato Cooks | BLACK & POLY

  3. Pingback: How the FBI Conspired to Destroy the Black Panther Party – In These Times |

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s